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157th Homecoming Anniversary Group

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Maverick Adams
Maverick Adams

Steam Generators And Waste Heat Boilers: For Pr...



Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel ideas for improving boiler efficiency and lowering gas pressure drop. It helps plant engineers understand and evaluate the performance of steam generators and waste heat boilers at any load.




Steam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Pr...



This book begins with basic combustion and boiler efficiency calculations. It then moves on to estimation of furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), furnace duty, view factors, heat flux, and boiler circulation calculations. It also describes trends in large steam generator designs such as multiple-module; elevated drum design types of boilers such as D, O, and A; and forced circulation steam generators. It illustrates various options to improve boiler efficiency and lower operating costs. The author addresses the importance of flue gas analysis, fire tube versus water tube boilers used in chemical plants, and refineries. In addition, he describes cogeneration systems; heat recovery in sulfur plants, hydrogen plants, and cement plants; and the effect of fouling factor on performance. The book also explains HRSG simulation process and illustrates calculations for complete performance evaluation of boilers and their components.


Why use a Boiler?Boilers are used to produce steam. The generation part of a steam system uses a boiler to add energy to a feedwater supply to generate steam. The energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels or from process waste heat.


Where are Boilers Used?Anywhere you are creating heat and/or steam, you will probably find a boiler. ABMA members produce large boilers for the commercial, industrial, utility sector and more. Boiler systems are used to create pulp & paper, generate electricity and process foods. The complexity significantly increases as you increase the size and need for greater performance of the boiler system.


What are the basic types of Boilers?There are two basic types of boilers: firetube and watertube. The fundamental difference between these boiler types is which side of the boiler tubes contain the combustion gases or the boiler water/steam.


In watertube boilers, boiler water passes through the tubes while the exhaust gases remain in the shell side, passing over the tube surfaces. Because tubes can typically withstand higher internal pressure than the large chamber shell in a firetube, watertube boilers are used where high steam pressures (3,000 psi, sometimes higher) are required. Watertube boilers are also capable of high efficiencies and can generate saturated or superheated steam. In fact, the ability of watertube boilers to generate superheated steam makes these boilers particularly attractive in applications that require dry, high-pressure, high energy steam, including steam turbine power generation. The performance characteristics of watertube boilers make them highly favorable in process industries, including chemical manufacturing, pulp and paper manufacturing, and refining. Although firetube boilers account for the majority of boiler sales in terms of units, watertube boilers account for the majority of boiler capacity.


These boilers may be either firetube or watertube design and use heat that would otherwise be discarded to generate steam. Typical sources of heat for WHRBs include exhaust gases or high-temperature products from an external manufacturing process in refineries and chemical manufacturing facilities, or combustion of a waste fuel in the boiler furnace.


HRSGs transfer energy from the exhaust of a gas turbine to an unfired or supplementary fired heat-recovery steam generator to produce steam. Exhaust gases leave the gas turbine at temperatures of 1,000F (538C) or higher and can represent more than 75% of the total fuel energy input. This energy can be recovered by passing the gases through a heat exchanger (steam generator) to produce hot water or steam for process needs.


Firetube boilers work by forcing exhaust gases through tubes immersed in water and represent the most economical means of generating steam from waste heat. E-Tech firetube boilers are generally used to generate steam from engine, thermal oxidizer and furnace exhaust.


We can customize your firetube boiler to include refractory lined tube sheets and tube ferrules. We also offer dual-drum piggyback designs for enhanced steam quality, as well as superheaters and economizers to meet further quality and efficiency standards. We can create a complete boiler package for your plant, with additional equipment such as inlet and outlet breaching, stacks, dampers, ladders, platforms and expansion joints


A large university in Canada awarded Indeck Keystone Energy a contract for the supply of our waste heat high temperature hot water generator for use in their combined heat and power cogeneration plant in an effort to reduce CO2 emissions by 50%. The Indeck high temperature hot water generator converts the waste gas stream into 200 MMbtu /hr of hot water heat supplied to the universities' campus heating system. Indeck's scope of supply included all equipment downstream of a Solar Titan 130 gas turbine including an integral duct burner and flue gas bypass system for operational flexibility and ability to supply campus heat in cogeneration, supplemental, and heating only mode via fresh air firing. The complete system is currently operating successfully, meeting all performance and emission targets. The fuel once used to heat campus is now used to generate 12 MW of electricity with campus heat being recovered from the combustion turbine's waste gas.


A correctional institution in the US awarded Indeck a contract for the supply of a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) system with auxiliary equipment to generate steam from waste gas. The Incline HRSG reclaims waste heat from a Centaur 40 gas turbine and supplies 19,200 PPH / 135 PSIG steam to the prison for heating and process users. The boiler and auxiliary equipment were delivered and were successfully started up.


A heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream, such as a combustion turbine or other waste gas stream. It produces steam that can be used in a process (cogeneration) or used to drive a steam turbine (combined cycle).


Modular HRSGs can be categorized by a number of ways such as direction of exhaust gases flow or number of pressure levels. Based on the flow of exhaust gases, HRSGs are categorized into vertical and horizontal types. In horizontal type HRSGs, exhaust gas flows horizontally over vertical tubes whereas in vertical type HRSGs, exhaust gas flow vertically over horizontal tubes. Based on pressure levels, HRSGs can be categorized into single pressure and multi pressure. Single pressure HRSGs have only one steam drum and steam is generated at single pressure level whereas multi pressure HRSGs employ two (double pressure) or three (triple pressure) steam drums. As such triple pressure HRSGs consist of three sections: an LP (low pressure) section, a reheat/IP (intermediate pressure) section, and an HP (high pressure) section. Each section has a steam drum and an evaporator section where water is converted to steam. This steam then passes through superheaters to raise the temperature beyond the saturation point.


Packaged HRSGs are designed to be shipped as a fully assembled unit from the factory. They can be used in waste heat or turbine (usually under 20 MW) applications. The packaged HRSG can have a water-cooled furnace, which allows for higher supplemental firing and better overall efficiency.


A specialized type of HRSG without boiler drums is the once-through steam generator. In this design, the inlet feedwater follows a continuous path without segmented sections for economizers, evaporators, and superheaters. This provides a high degree of flexibility as the sections are allowed to grow or contract based on the heat load being received from the gas turbine. The absence of drums allows for quick changes in steam production and fewer variables to control, and is ideal for cycling and base load operation. With proper material selection, an OTSG can be run dry, meaning the hot exhaust gases can pass over the tubes with no water flowing inside the tubes. This eliminates the need for a bypass stack and exhaust gas diverter system which is required to operate a combustion turbine with a drum-type HRSG out of service.[1]


About MacchiMacchi is a world leading manufacturer of industrial HRSG boilers and waste heat boilers, specializing in systems for the design and construction cycle cogeneration (CHP).Macchi is well experienced and established in supplying equipment to the oil & gas and petrochemical industries. Macchi was founded in 1959 and became part of SOFINTER Group in 1997, Macchi was incorporated into SOFINTER Spa as an operating division in 2004.


HRSG BoilersWe supply Macchi Heat Recovery Steam Generators. Macchi HRSG boilers are an effective solution for power facilities looking to improve efficiency and reduce electricity costs by recovering waste heat from the plants processes.


Waste Heat Boilers (WHB)Allied Energy International provides industry leading Macchi waste heat boilers to North American facilities and power plants worldwide. We supply Macchi manufactured waste heat steam generators and also offer a full after sales support service. Macchi WHBs help power plant owners recover and utilize the enormous amounts of waste heat generated from various industrial processes such as Fluid Catalytic Cracking, Phthalic Anhydride, Steel Mill, Sulphur& Visbreaking. 041b061a72


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